February 14, 1896
Theodor Herzl, an Austro-Hungarian journalist publishes his famous pamphlet “The Jewish State.” He published this pamphlet after covering the Dreyfus Affair in France, in which Alfred Dreyfus, a French-Jewish artillery officer, is accused and convicted for treason though no evidence is presented against him. Herzl argues that the Jewish people will never be fully accepted anywhere, and must found their own homeland. This marks the beginning of modern Zionism.
August 29-31, 1897
First Zionist Congress held in Basel Switzerland to discuss the future of the Jewish people. “Hatikvah” was adopted as the Zionist Organization’s anthem, and later became Israel’s national anthem.
November 2, 1917
The Balfour Declaration was issued by the British government during World War I, promising they would support the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
July 22, 1946
The Irgun, a militant Zionist organization bombed the King David Hotel in Jerusalem after the British (who were in control of the Palestinian terrirory at the time) had confiscated several documents that implicated the Haganah, the paramilitary organization of the Jewish population in Palestine, in insurgency against the British. Though three phone calls were made to warn the hotel, they weren’t heeded and 91 people were killed.
February 14, 1947
Britain hands over responsibility for the Palestinian territory to the United Nations.
November 29, 1947
UN Partition Plan for Palestine Approved (Resolution 181) proposing the creation of a Jewish and an Arab state in the Palestinian territory after the British Mandate ended. The Jews accepted, the Arab nations did not, leading to the Israeli War of Independence.
May 14, 1948
State of Israel is proclaimed with a famous speech by David Ben-Gurion.
May 15, 1948
Start of Israeli War of Independence fought against Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, and Iraq. About 4,000 Israeli fighters and 2,400 Israeli civilians were killed.
January 25, 1949
Israel’s first national elections are held. David Ben-Gurion is elected as Prime Minister.
October 29-November 6, 1956
Sinai Campaign took place in response to several attacks on the Egyptian border. 171 Israeli soldiers were killed.
June 2, 1964
The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) is founded with the goal of liberating Palestine through armed struggle.
May 15-22, 1967
Egypt began mobilization in the Sinai Peninsula, and closed the Straits of Tiran. This was taken as an act of aggression against Israel, and ultimately led to the preemptive attack by Israel which started the Six-Day War.
June 5-10, 1967
Six-Day War is fought between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, and Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon. Over 700 Israeli soldiers and 20 Israeli civilians were killed. Over 4,500 Israeli soldiers were wounded, and 15 were captured.
July 1, 1967
War of Attrition Starts. The war of Attrition was a period of war between the Six-Day War and the Yom Kippur War where Israel clashed with Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. Between 694-1424 Israeli soldiers and 227 Israeli civilians were killed.
April 4, 1968
Jewish settlement established in Hebron.
March 17, 1969
Golda Meir is elected the first female Prime Minister of Israel after serving as Minister of Labour and Foreign Minister.
October 6-25, 1973
Yom Kippur War fought between Israel and Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco. The Arab states led a surprise attack on Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the year for Jews, starting one of Israel’s most traumatic wars. 2,691 IDF soldiers were killed.
November 10, 1975
United National General Assembly adopts Resolution 3379 stating that Zionism is a form of Racism. Though this resolution was repealed on December 16, 1991, it set a dangerous precedent for making anti-Zionism and anti-Semitism acceptable.
July 4, 1977
Operation Entebbe, 100 Israeli commandos were deployed to Uganda to rescue hostages that were on an Air France flight hijacked and diverted by members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and the German Red Army Faction. Passengers had been separated into two groups, Israelis and non-Israelis. The non-Israelis were released, leaving 106 hostages stuck in Entebbe. 102 were rescued, and 4 were killed, along with an Israeli commando.
November 20, 1977
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat visits Jerusalem. He was the first and only Arab leader to visit Israel and to call for peace at the Knesset.
March 11, 1978
11 PLO terrorists entered Israel from Lebanon and took control of an Israeli civilian bus, killing 35 civilians and wounding 71. This instigated Operation Litani, in which the IDF started an operation against terrorist infrastructure in Southern Lebanon. 18 IDF soldiers were killed during this operation.
September 17, 1978
Camp David Accords Signed by Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat in the presence of US President Jimmy Carter. These accords laid the groundwork for the Oslo Accords of 1993.
March 26, 1979
Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty Signed. Peace between Israel and Egypt has lasted since the treaty went into effect.
June 7, 1981
“Operation Opera” – Israel attacks Iraq’s Osirak nuclear reactor.
June 6, 1982
“Operation Peace for the Galilee” is launched, marking the start of the First Lebanon War in response to rocket fire from the PLO in Lebanon and increased tension along Israel’s northern border. About 1,400 Israeli soldiers and 191 Israeli civilians were killed.
October 1, 1985
“Operation Wooden Leg” in which the Israeli Air Force targeted PLO headquarters in Tunisia in retaliation for several terror attacks carried out during the summer of 1985.
December 8, 1987
Start of the First Intifada, a violent Palestinian uprising that took the lives of 175 Israeli civilians and 102 Israeli security forces.
January 16, 1991
The Gulf War begins. Over the course of the war, Iraq fired dozens of SCUD missiles at Israel in an attempt to drag the into the war. Upon request from the USA, Israel remained neutral so as not to endanger the USA’s relations with a coalition of Arab countries.
October 30-November 1, 1991
Madrid Peace Conference which resulted in the recognition of Israel by several countries including China, India, Oman, Qatar, Tunisia, Morocco, andn Mauritania.
July 25-31, 1993
“Operation Accountability” Israeli Air Force attacks Hezbollah targets in response to Hezbollah rocket fire into Israel. Two Israeli civilians and one IDF soldier were killed.
September 13, 1993
Oslo I Accord signed in the presence of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat, and US President Bill Clinton. The Accord included the Letters of Mutual Recognition, in which Israel recognized the PLO as leading of the Palistinian people and the Palestinians recognized the state of Israel and denounced terrorism, a plan for Israeli withdrawal from parts of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, allowing for the Palestinian right of self-government within those areas.
December 30, 1993
Israel and Vatican sign “Fundamental Agreement”, establishing diplomatic relations.
May 4, 1994
The Gaza-Jericho Agreement is signed by Yasser Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin, in which limited Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip within 5 years was agreed upon.
Israel withdraws from Jericho and after the signing of the Gaza-Jericho Agreement.
October 14, 1994
Yitzhak Rabin, Shimon Peres, and Yasser Arafat awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their signing of the Oslo Accords.
October 9, 1994
Hamas kidnaps and kills an Israeli soldier Nachshon Wachsman. Though Israel, with the PA cooperated in his search and rescue, they found his location too late and he was killed.
October 26, 1994
Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty signed by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Jordanian Prime MInister Abdelsalam al-Majali. After the signing, the two countries opened their borders.
September 28, 1995
The Oslo II Accord is signed, craeting Areas A, B, and C in the West Bank and granting the Palestinian Authority limited power in Areas A and B.
November 4, 1995
Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by a Jewish extremist at a peace rally in Tel Aviv.
April 11-27, 1996
“Operation Grapes of Wrath” launched in Southern Lebanon in response to Hezbollah rocket fire aimed at Northern Israel.
September 24-27, 1996
The Western Wall Tunnel riots erupt in Jerusalem and spread to the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Palestinians started rioting after Israel opened up the Western Wall Tunnel to the public. 25 IDF soldiers were killed and dozens wounded.
January 17, 1997
The Hebron Protocol is signed. The IDF withdraws from 80% of Hebron and the city is divided into Area H-1 (under PA control), and Area H-2 (under IDF control).
May 24, 2000
Israel withdraws from Southern Lebanon
September 29, 2000
Outbreak of Second Intifada. A wave of Palestinian violence and terror that lasted until January 2005. Around 700 Israeli civilians and over 200 Israeli security forces personnel were killed.
October 12, 2000
Lynching of Ramallah. Two Israeli reservists, Vadim Norzhich and Yosef “Yossi” Avrahami were killed and their bodies mutilated at a Palestinian police station after they accidentally entered the city of Ramallah. The incident was filmed by the international media and shocked the world with its violence.
January 3, 2002
“Operation Noah’s Ark”. Israel intercepts Palestinian Karine a Freighter carrying 50 tons of weapons in the Red Sea.
March 29, 2002
IDF launches Operation Defensive Shield in the West Bank in response to the Second Intifada. 30 Isareli soldiers were killed and 127 were wounded.
January 29, 2004
Israel-Hezbollah Prisoner Exchange. Israel exchanges 435 Arab prisoners in exchange for the bodies of 3 Israeli soldiers who were missing since they were ambushed on the Israeli-Lebanese border in 2000, and one Israeli businessman who was abducted under mysterious circumstances in 2000.
July 12, 2005
Suicide bombing at the HaSharon Mall in Netanya kills 5 and wounds dozens
August 17-23, 2005
Evacuation of Israeli settlers from 21 settlements in the Gaza Strip and four Israeli settlements in the northern West Bank, as part of the disengagement plan.
June 25, 2006
IDF Corporal Gilad Shalit is kidnapped from a military base by Hamas. During the attack 2 soldiers in Shalit’s tank were killed and a third was wounded
June 28, 2006
“Operation Summer Rains” launched by the IDF to rescue Gilad Shalit and stop rocket fire from Gaza. 5 Israeli soldiers and 6 civilians were killed, Shalit was not rescued.
July 12, 2006
Second Lebanon War is launched after Hezbollah crosses the Northern Israeli border, attacking Israeli troops, killing three and kidnapping two. 119 Israeli soldiers and 44 Israeli civilians were killed.
November 1, 2006
“Operation Autumn Clouds” launched in Beit Hanoun in Gaza as a follow up to “Operation Summer Rains” to rescue Gilad Shalit and to stop rocket fire from Gaza. Shalit was not rescued, but rocket fire was greatly reduced. 1 IDF soldier was killed during the operation.
July 16, 2008
Hezbollah releases bodies of captive Israeli soldiers Eldad Regez and Ehud Goldwasser, whose kidnapping sparked the Second Lebanon War.
December 27, 2008
In response to increasing rocket barrages and terrorist activity, Israel launches Operation Cast Lead against Hamas in Gaza. The operation ended after 22 days. 10 Israeli soldiers and 3 Israeli civilians lost their lives.
October 18, 2011
Gilad Shalit released by Hamas in exchange for 1,027 prisoners, including one of the Ramallah lynchers.
November 14, 2012
Israel launches Operation Pillar of Defense in response to rocket attacks from Gaza. 4 Israeli civilians and 2 IDF soldiers were killed.
March 31, 2014
“Operation Full Disclosure” launched to stop Iran from smuggling weapons to terrorist organizations in Gaza.
June 12, 2014
3 Israeli teenagers are abducted and killed by Palestinian terrorists, their bodies are discovered on June 30th after IDF launched “Operation Brother’s Keeper” to find them.
July 7, 2014
Israel launches Operation Protective Edge in response to increased rocket-fire from Gaza and with the goal of destroying Gaza’s terror-tunnels. 68 Israeli soldiers and 6 Israeli civilians were killed.
April 23, 2014
A reconciliation agreement is signed by Fatah and Hamas, creating a Palestinian unity government. This effectively ends Israeli-Palestinian peace talks.
“Operation Good Neighbor” directive put into place to provide humanitarian, medical, infrastructure, and civilian aid to Syrians affected by the Syrian Civil War.
December 4, 2018
IDF exposes tunnels dug by Hezbollah into Israeli territory, and starts “Operation Northern Shield” to destroy this tunnel network.
September 15, 2020
Officially the Abraham Accords Peace Agreement: The Israel–United Arab Emirates normalization agreement signed by the Government of the United Arab Emirates and the Government of the State of Israel. A Treaty of Peace, Diplomatic Relations, and Full Normalization Between the United Arab Emirates and the State of Israel.